The length of the individual or elementary fibres is ranging from 2 to 90 mm (average length is 15 mm). A schematic view of the multi-scale structures of flax from stem to the cellulosic fibrils is given in Fig. Lumen is surrounded by the tertiary wall. It is a very important influence factor for fibres mechanical properties. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. The disadvantages of some cellulose fibres are: lower modulus of elasticity, high moisture absorption, decomposition in alkaline environments, they are susceptible to biological attack, variable mechanical and physical properties. Jute is a natural fibre obtained as an extract from the bark of the white jute plant Corchorus capsularis and to a lesser extent from tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius) [Mohanty 2005]. The fibres have an excellent moisture resistance and rot only very slowly in water. Like cotton, flax fibre is a cellulose fibre, however its structure is more crystalline, making it stronger, and stiffer to handle, and more easily wrinkled. Flax fiber is 10–100 cm in length. From which parts of the plant cot¬ton and jute are obtained? Especially are these fibres important for technical textiles production. Furthermore, cellulose molecules are, during the course of biosynthesis, arranged in morphological units elementary fibrils. Quinoa plant and its stem are shown on Figure 9. x^���%��&�?�"~Ƒ)N;�7�ޱ�UiT�ꋦ���;fS�#�2��V���L]cg恗�����UۚLY�︓ � ���ꏯ�~��o� W!��t���������W�y]�@�p��yY�J��r�������)���v����=-׿j��u������^��S��]�N�^��i�^��),������HO~s�W����o^���'�4��. Flax: Linum usitatissimum [19-23] grown for fibre and linseed grown for seed oil are cultivars (varieties of the same plant species bred with an emphasis on the required product). Pre-treatment of stems facilitates sclerenchyma cells separation from other plant tissues, and fibres’ diameter for fibres isolated from pre-treated stems was 42.61μm. Moisture regain of jute fibres is 12.6%, but it can absorb up to 23% of water under conditions of high humidity. Introduction. Actually each of three fibres sub-layers has a different microfibrillar orientation [ Krässig 1992, John 2008, Cuissinat 2008] which is specific for the fibre type. It was confirmed by many researchers that properties of natural fibres of different origin improve composites properties, e.g. Cellulose content in sisal fibres is about 70%. Silk fibre is drawn from the cocoon of silkworm. Leaf fibres are often referred to as hard fibres, and have limited commercial value, mainly because they are generally stiffer and coarser texture than the bast fibres. HeadquartersIntechOpen Limited5 Princes Gate Court,London, SW7 2QJ,UNITED KINGDOM. reported about fibres which were obtained from untreated stems by mechanical isolation. The kapok cell wall structure differs from other natural cellulosic fibres. Linus usitatissimum (meaning "of greatest use"), is the oldest cultivated fiber plant, with evidence of its growth and use dating back to the fifth millennium BC in both Mesopotamia and Egypt. Kapok fibres are 10–35 mm long, with a diameter of 20–43 μm. Wallsof burial chambers dated 3000 B.C. Flax is also called Linen. It has been found in ancient tombs and was used in burial shrouds for Egyptian pharaohs. SEM images of surface morphology of differently isolated fibres from quinoa (fibres from stems, treated in NaOH at T = 1000C). The celluloses produced by primitive organisms (bacteria, algae etc.) Due to sea-grass fibres mechanical properties and its low density fibres present an attractive reinforcement for composite materials, especially when bio-degradability is required. Cotton is hydrophilic and the fibres swell considerably in water. Above all the leaves fibres are used for production of cordage and ropes. Sfiligoj et al. The most important fibre of this class is cotton. Fibres are oval to cylindrical in shape and their colour is white and high lustrous. The species that is cultivated most extensively is L. usitatissimum, an annual plant grown for its fiber and seed. consists mainly of the Iβ phase. Usually fibre cells are occurring in strands or bundles which are called technical fibres [Caffall 2009]. Fibres are durable and they have good resistance to bacteria, mildew and insect attack. Flax fibres have a soft handle and have fairly lustrous appearance. Wild Fibres natural fibres > plant fibres. Whereas the fibre extraction is simple, fibres are cheap and of appropriate properties elephant grass is also suitable for composites used for lightweight structures preparation [55]. The plant is not problematic and it can be cultivated everywhere. Fibres are the sclerenchyma cells that are associated with the vascular tissues and are a component of plant skeleton. Flax fibres are not as pure as cotton in terms cellulose content; indeed they contain only about 60 - 70% of cellulose. Fabric made from flax is called linen. sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, soaps, or mineral acids. The tow fibre is just compressed and bailed. Linen is a bast fiber, meaning it is obtained from the stem of a plant – in this case, the flax plant. Flax - Production. The variation of fibres’ diameter is very high (variation coefficient is 43.76%). The obtained values are comparable with the mechanical properties of some textile bast fibres, e.g. Abaca or Manila hemp is extracted from the leaf sheath around the trunk of the abaca plant (Musa textilis). Physically, each fibre cell is made up of four main parts, namely the primary wall, the thick secondary wall, the tertiary wall and the lumen. Though flax has lost some of its value as a commercial fibre crop owing to the availability of synthetic fibres, flaxseed has grown in popularity as a health food, and flax remains economically … The diameter of elementary fibres was 10-20μm and diameter of macrofibrils with helicoidal arrangement inside the secondary cell wall was less than 1μm. Sclerenchyma cells possess fibre like form and are arranged longitudinally. It is mainly grown in regions having black soil and warm conditions. Several techniques are used for extraction of conventional bast fibres: (i) Dew retting by the action of dew, sun, and fungi on the plants spread out on the ground, (ii) Water retting is conducted in rivers or pools through bacterial action and takes 2–4 weeks, (iii) For chemical retting solutions of different chemicals are used, e.g. It was found that all surface modifications enhanced adhesion and tensile properties [Joshy 2007]. The length of the sisal fibre varies between 0.6 and 1.5 m and its diameters range from 100 to 300 μm [Mohanty 2005]. bast or stem fibres, which form fibrous bundles in the inner bark (phloem or bast) of stems of dicotyledenous plants, leaf fibres which run lengthwise through the leaves of monocotyledenous plants and fibres of seeds and fruits. The most important components of fibres are cellulose (77%), pectin (1.4%) and waxes (1.4%). World Production. The fine structure and mechanical properties of fibres within a maturing vascular bundle of moso bamboo Phyllostachys pubescens was studied by Wang with co-workers [Wang 2012]. The walls of plant cells (the primary and the secondary cell wall) can be considered as a composite consisting of cellulose fibrils embedded within a matrix of lignin and hemicellulosic polysaccharides [Krässig 1992]. , jute, flax and rather difficult to bleach compression moulding polar nature which makes them incompatible with thermoplastics! To cotton properties and slightly lower than that of low-grade jute and is only. Lack of health hazards and non-abrasive nature [ Sreenivasan 2012 ] their geometrical are! A cell wall is thin and covered with a diameter of the plant, belonging to the LINACÆ family variable... A “ hard ” fibre extracted from the stalk of the stem of the structure the. 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