If the OIPRD or SIU had been investigating, the complainants would have been interviewed and there would be a detailed report explaining the process and the outcome, she said. Sgt. Those mostly affected by over-policing behavior live in rural and remote areas (Walker and MacDonald, 1995 p1-3; Albsudry, 2001 p1; Berry and Crowe, 2009 p2). Indigenous youth wonder: who is policing First Nations’ police? rights reserved. Andrea Levey admits that her frustration over the slow pace of change in the Edmonton Police Service (EPS) is being taken over with hope in the new leadership. The survivor of a past suicide attempt, Porter, 19, requires a tracheostomy tube to breathe. Aboriginal youth are overrepresented in Ontario correctional facilities at a much higher rate than Aboriginal adults. Changes are coming, too, under the forthcoming SIU Act, said a spokesperson for the Ministry of the Attorney General, including giving the watchdog the “authority to enter into voluntary agreements with First Nations in Ontario to conduct or assist with investigations.”. Throughout Canadian history, the RCMP played a significant role in shaping Canada's relationship with Indigenous peoples. Like many of Ontario’s First Nations communities, Six Nations is outside the jurisdiction of the province’s police watchdogs. These sorts of attitudes are not counteracted by Aboriginal awareness programs or similar initiatives. “And no one gets to investigate them but themselves.”. Unfortunately, indigenous over-representation issue is quite complex with interplay aspects that involve basic causal factors including historical, political, societal and economic factors. Other data has shown Indigenous Australians were remarkably over-policed for public nuisance offences in Queensland. If it shifts or becomes blocked it could obstruct his airway, causing him to suffocate. Share. What processes were used to respond to offending by Indigenous and non-Indigenous young people and was there disp… Porter and his friends are hopeful the review could bring accountability and say Indigenous communities should have access to police oversight when it’s warranted. Tamar Friedman, a Toronto lawyer representing the men, said it’s not clear who was interviewed, what documents were reviewed or how the police service came to its decision. A major inquiry will examine the files of 250 Aboriginal children and young people in the state’s youth justice system to establish why Indigenous young people are so heavily over-represented. Article by Wendy Gillis, Peterborough This Week. Indigenous Australians made up 25% of children aged 10 to 18 subject to the laws in the same period. Importantly, she said, Indigenous communities must be supported, including financially, to develop whatever system is best. Our role continues today, with the intent of rekindling trust and strengthening communications with the more than 600 Indigenous communities we serve. A majority of offenders are arrested for the offence of offensive language. Indigenous Peoples twice as likely to be chosen to be surveilled by, or intervened with, by police due to racist stereotypes that criminalize Indigenous people. Republication or distribution of this content is Amid a national reckoning about policing, in the wake of two recent fatal police shootings of Indigenous people in New Brunswick and the violent arrest of Athabasca Chipewyan First Nation Chief Allan Adam, the men are speaking out about what they say is a lack of accountability for police actions in their home territory. Later that month, the men were advised their complaints had been dismissed, without them ever being interviewed. To order copies of But if you compare fines issued based on traffic camera incidents, the proportions are almost even. “I just want justice, and that’s something that hasn’t been on this reserve for a very long time, if ever,” said Mike Davis. The study addressed three research questions: 1. “As a member of this community, I deserve the right to feel safe and protected by our police service. JOIN THE CONVERSATION Toronto could significantly cut police spending and reduce the over-policing of Black and Indigenous people by removing officers from … LGBTQ2S+ Community The VPD LGBTQ2S+ Liaison Officer works with community agencies to improve the safety of LGBTQ2S+ people in our city, which is the goal of the Safe Place program. Although that may mean good news in the future, it doesn’t help the men from Six Nations. This study aimed to contribute to the emerging literature examining disparity in the use of police diversion and whether the impact of police diversion on re-contact varies based on Indigenous status. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! It should also be noted that Indigenous women were especially heavily over-represented, comprising 44 per cent of the female cases but only 1.1 per cent of the national female population aged 15 and above. “I am dismissing this claim that you were treated inappropriately or unlawfully when you were arrested,” Smoke wrote in a letter addressed to Ryan Davis and reviewed by the Star. If the raid and arrests had occurred outside Six Nations’ territory, Porter’s injuries would have automatically prompted an investigation by the Special Investigations Unit (SIU), which probes serious injuries and deaths involving police. Instead, there has been “complete lack of accountability” surrounding what she called a disturbing use of excessive force. Past EVENTS / Over-Policing Black and Indigenous Lives. “I am dismissing this claim that you were treated inappropriately or unlawfully when you were arrested,” Smoke wrote in a letter addressed to Ryan Davis and reviewed by the Star. Many of the yo… With no options available, the men asked Six Nations police to bring in a third party, such as an outside police service, to investigate. While the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) has reduced Canada’s overall youth incarceration rate in recent years, the relative proportion of detained Aboriginal youth has actually increased. Concerns regarding the entire criminal justice system’s treatment of Aboriginal youth was a recurring theme in the submissions received by the Commission. The over-policing and jailing of Indigenous, Black and racialized people is part of that context. But what that looks like — whether it be an oversight body, community council, a commissioner or ombudsperson — should depend on each community’s distinct needs. Later that month, the men were advised their complaints had been dismissed, without them ever being interviewed. Since police dismissed the men’s complaints, the Six Nations Elected Council has signalled an intention to launch a review of both the police service and its commission, although it’s not clear if the men’s complaints about the raid played a part in that decision. Through consultation with Indigenous communities, Tulloch said the “desire for appropriate civilian oversight of First Nations policing is clear.”. His friend, Ryan Davis, was diagnosed with a concussion after he says he was punched in the head by an officer — “I remember saying, ‘Stop, you’re hurting me,’ like screaming (it),” Davis said. More than 300 children are on the NSW Police secret blacklist, half are Aboriginal and the youngest child targeted is nine years of age. “I also fear that the Six Nations police will do this to someone else, and the next person might not be so lucky.”. “Dallas could have died, easily, the second that somebody put his face into the ground,” said Alyziah Styres, who listened as Porter struggled to breathe in the back of a police car, his tracheostomy tube partially obstructed. The three other men who were arrested say they were also roughed up and remain traumatized by the incident, especially police treatment of Porter. The over-policing and jailing of Indigenous, Black and racialized people is part of that context. We found that young people are experiencing patterns of oppressive policing that are harmful to them, their families and the community. “A lot of times, Indigenous people don’t want to come forward because they don’t want the attention, they are afraid (they’ll be) targeted even further and, sadly, they just take it,” he said. This is true in both the adult and youth justice spheres. Over half (57%) of First Nations children in census metropolitan areas (CMAs) were living in low-income economic families, as were 45% of Inuit children and 42% of Métis children. The Program operates in accordance with the First Nations Policing Policy, a national framework for the provision of policing services in First Nation and Inuit communities. “I just want justice, and that’s something that hasn’t been on this reserve for a very long time, if ever,” said Mike Davis. The impact of over-policing has led to a great distrust of the police by Aboriginal people. “This lack of oversight and accountability can only embolden (Six Nations Police) officers to participate in further abuse,” Friedman said. to colleagues, clients or customers, or inquire about We received hundreds of responses about racial profiling in policing. According to a spokesperson for the Ministry of the Solicitor General, incoming changes to Ontario’s policing legislation will create civilian police oversight of officers employed by First Nation boards that choose to opt in. Many police officers and organizations in Ontario acknowledge that racial profiling may occur in police interactions with racialized and Indigenous peoples, and several have taken steps to address it. When the new policing legislation comes into force — the regulations are still being drafted and there is no timeline — it will establish the Law Enforcement Complaints Agency (LECA), replacing the OIPRD. Erick Laming, an Algonquin First Nation PhD candidate studying criminology at the University of Toronto, has interviewed Indigenous people living off and on reserve about their interactions with police, and says he’s heard many first-hand stories about police violence and victims having no recourse. Rastafarians march for access to cannabis industry, B.C. Toronto Star articles, please go to: www.TorontoStarReprints.com, The Toronto Star and thestar.com, each property of Toronto Star High profile instances of police brutality against Black, Indigenous and racialized people, from the killing of Andrew Evans in 1978 to the killing of D’Andre Campbell, Chantel Moore and Ejaz Ahmed Choudry this year are not independent incidents, but part of this long-standing trend. The 98% — over-policing, suicide and Aboriginal youth in the NT Most young people in custody in the NT are on remand, the consequences of which – social isolation, family and community fracture, stigmatisation, disrupted education, cultural and work opportunities – … A major inquiry will examine the files of 250 Aboriginal children and young people in the state’s youth justice system to establish why Indigenous young people are so heavily over-represented. Canadians have a largely favourable view of police in their communities but Indigenous people, members of visible minority groups and younger … A police quota for search warrants in far west NSW has drawn concern about possible over-policing of Indigenous people and communities. Suddenly, the teen’s life was in peril. As Figure 2 below shows, of the 41 STMP targets current at 30 June 2014 across the five LACs for which data is available, 22 (54%) were identified as Aboriginal peoples, again suggesting Aboriginal peoples are over represented as targets of policing via the STMP. “After the police slammed me into the floor I was then stood up and slammed into the wall.”. But what that looks like — whether it be an oversight body, community council, a commissioner or ombudsperson — should depend on each community’s distinct needs. L was not a suspectfor this incident The conversation soonturned into an argument between L and P, with L telling P: 'Fuck you. Applicants are Indigenous youth who are college or university students and interested in becoming police officers. Indigenous policing and reconciliation. However, I am left feeling violated by the very people who are supposed to be safeguarding our community,” Ryan Davis wrote in a complaint to former Six Nations Police Chief Glen Lickers late last year. The survivor of a past suicide attempt, Porter, 19, requires a tracheostomy tube to breathe. Western Australian Police also issue Aboriginal drivers with more on-the-spot fines than other person in that state which suggests racist attitudes. Over Policing. The plan also puts extreme strain on family relationships. NSW Police accused of ‘racist policing’, as Indigenous youth comprise more than half of those targeted by obscure Suspect Target Management Program (STMP). He and Davis said officers refused to get the backpack containing Q-tips needed to clear Porter’s breathing tube. “They are investigating themselves and I fear that this incident will get dismissed, as it is not being taken seriously,” Porter wrote in a letter to the council in March. Policing under the Suspect Targeting Management Plan is particularly harmful in criminalising already overpoliced Indigenous young people. permissions/licensing, please go to: www.TorontoStarReprints.com. Offensive language is punishable without needing to constitute a breach of the peace. Like many of Ontario’s First Nations communities, Six Nations is outside the jurisdiction of the province’s police watchdogs. Over-policing generally results from the imposition of police control on individual or community activities at a level unlikely to occur in the dominant society. One suggested cause is the provocative over-policing of Indigenous people and the use of police discretion to arrest and charge, often through the use of the so-called ‘trifecta’ of charges – whereby police will approach an Indigenous person about their use of offensive language, and the abrasiveness of the confrontation will cause the situation to escalate and result in charges of resisting arrest and assaulting police. Star Newspapers Limited and/or its licensors. Friedman is still asking Six Nations police to allow an outside body to investigate her clients’ complaints. I was like, ‘How is this right’?”. "The institution of policing has for historical reasons adopted a number of practices, which are injurious to Indigenous peoples in this country, hence their over-representation in arrest and custody rates, leading to their over-representation in jail populations," he said. The memo states the watchdog is “concerned by … Neither the Six Nations Police Service nor Acting Deputy Chief David Smoke, the officer who investigated the complaints, responded to multiple emails and phone calls from the Star. She was a young Indigenous woman who worked at our police detachment as an administration assistant. “Sometimes at the Queensland youth detention centre here in Townsville, we have 60 to 70 per cent Indigenous people—there’s obviously a reason. Although that may mean good news in the future, it doesn’t help the men from Six Nations. Meanwhile, Styres and the Davises — all of whom were arrested and charged under the Cannabis Act, although the charges against Porter and Styres have been stayed — could have lodged complaints with the Office of the Independent Police Review Director (OIPRD), the province’s civilian police complaints agency. In 2017, University of Queensland professor Tamara Walsh obtained data … read. The absence of civilian police oversight in First Nations communities has been well documented, most recently by Ontario Court of Appeal Justice Michael Tulloch in his 2016 review of police oversight. “They’re untouchable,” Mike Davis, who was among the group arrested, said of the Six Nations police in a recent interview. Adrian Bodnar. Through consultation with Indigenous communities, Tulloch said the “desire for appropriate civilian oversight of First Nations policing is clear.”. NSW Police policy found to destructively target Indigenous youth A NSW Police policy that aims to predict and prevent future crime is causing serious harm to Aboriginal youth and has no evidence of … This creates a cycle whereby Indigenous youth are more likely to have longer criminal histories and greater struggles to divert from the criminal justice system. Systemic discrimination and negative stereotypes result in more Indigenous people being arrested, charged, and entering the criminal justice system. His report recommended the province consider expanding the mandates of the SIU and OIPRD to include First Nations policing, “subject to the opting in of individual First Nations.”. This results in Indigenous people being over charged both in the volume and severity of offenses. Police take very seriously their obligations and responsibilities in relation to all people in police custody, including Aboriginal people and youths. Changes are coming, too, under the forthcoming SIU Act, said a spokesperson for the Ministry of the Attorney General, including giving the watchdog the “authority to enter into voluntary agreements with First Nations in Ontario to conduct or assist with investigations.”. Meanwhile, Styres and the Davises — all of whom were arrested and charged under the Cannabis Act, although the charges against Porter and Styres have been stayed — could have lodged complaints with the Office of the Independent Police Review Director (OIPRD), the province’s civilian police complaints agency. This is compared to 21% of non-Aboriginal children in CMAs Footnote 16, Footnote 17. Over-Policing Black and Indigenous Lives. “This lack of oversight and accountability can only embolden (Six Nations Police) officers to participate in further abuse,” Friedman said. Here’s why, Indigenous cannabis dispensary grows in popularity after raids, BONOKOSKI: Not all First Nations are battening down the COVID-19 hatches, SNGR takes moment of silence ahead of general council; discussions on cannabis, elections and staffing changes, Confirmed Raids on Indigenous Dispensaries since Canadian legalization, Mississauga of Rice Lake Cannabis Association, Association of Canadian Cannabis Retailers, Federation of Sovereign Indigenous Nations, North Shore Anishinabek Cannabis Association. Instead, there has been “complete lack of accountability” surrounding what she called a disturbing use of excessive force. Constantly being harassed by police is a barrier to having a normal life. The newly-appointed director of the Eeyou Eenou Police Force, which … • They will be excellent role models for Aboriginal youth. He said the curfew would disadvantage Indigenous youth and their families in particular, who are already overrepresented in the justice system. She added that while some communities might choose to opt into already existing oversight bodies like the OIPRD, this should not be the default, as trusting outside agencies “has not always worked well for Indigenous peoples.”, “I strongly believe that Indigenous communities can identify and develop their own responsive and culturally appropriate solutions,” Loft said. The victim of this offensive language, a policeconstable (P), hadapproached L in pursuit of some information about rocks being thrown at apassing police car. “Six Nations Police smashed my face into the ground multiple times,” Porter said in a written summary of the incident, prepared for the Six Nations Confederacy Council. 3 - Legislative diversionary measures have not positively affected Indigenous young offenders as compared to Caucasian counterparts. “We also hope the (Six Nations police) will immediately start working with the Six Nations Elected Council and Hereditary Council to find new practices that will restore police legitimacy in the community, not only in the way they respond to complaints, but also in the way they police,” Friedman said. His report recommended the province consider expanding the mandates of the SIU and OIPRD to include First Nations policing, “subject to the opting in of individual First Nations.”. Regarding the youth’s 12 December 2020 arrest and subsequent detention at the Hobart Reception Prison, Tasmania Police is not aware of any such medical episode. Most Indigenous kids don’t do crime, this is an issue of over-policing,” he said. They map the development of Aboriginal criminology in Australia and cover key themes that have disproportionately affected Indigenous peoples such as over-policing, lack of access to justice in the neoliberal context, incarceration, and deaths in custody. - Indigenous youth are vastly over-represented at all stages in the criminal justice system of Canada and are more likely to be sentenced to prison and receive longer sentences regardless of criminal history and offence severity. “As a member of this community, I deserve the right to feel safe and protected by our police service. Non-Indigenous police 'over-criminalized' Cree youth in Quebec, inquiry hears . ... social workers and youth workers. The Star sought comment from the elected council but did not hear back. If the OIPRD or SIU had been investigating, the complainants would have been interviewed and there would be a detailed report explaining the process and the outcome, she said. Suddenly, the teen’s life was in peril. “They’re untouchable,” Mike Davis, who was among the group arrested, said of the Six Nations police in a recent interview. This legislation was co-developed with Indigenous partners with the goal of keeping Indigenous children and youth connected to their families, communities, and culture. Erick Laming, an Algonquin First Nation PhD candidate studying criminology at the University of Toronto, has interviewed Indigenous people living off and on reserve about their interactions with police, and says he’s heard many first-hand stories about police violence and victims having no recourse. Factors such as the utilisation of police discretion on the street, over-policing, police-youth conflict and racism have been ignored (O'Connor 1994 page 210, Naffine et al 1990) although they are the very issues likely to lead to disproportionate criminalisation of Indigenous young people (Cunneen 1994). They have often been sparked by crisis and they have highlighted inequities, and sometimes gross misconduct, in relations between Indigenous Peoples and policing and justice … “In doing this, communities will have ownership over their information, processes, decisions and outcomes.”, Published in Cannabis Activism, courts / legal, Green Cross 6N, Indigenous Cannabis Laws, Police, Prohibition and Six Nations. The 98% — over-policing, suicide and Aboriginal youth in the NT. Where suspected offenders appear to lack community ties, such as * Notes: 1. “After the police slammed me into the floor I was then stood up and slammed into the wall.”. 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